C19ConflictMonitor: Real or perceived shortages or preferential treatment of certain identity groups could result in social unrest, looting and attacks on individuals and groups. These programs provide food for those who are highly food insecure. Food security is defined as the availability of food and one's access to it. For example, livelihoods are the “ways in which people access and mobilise resources that ena ble them to pursue goals necessary for their survival and longer-term well-being, and thereby reduce the vulnerability created and exacerbated by conflict” (Young. Livelihood insecurity and social conflict are manifest in contemporary Nepal. 9 How to conduct a food security assessment. [*Bc]��B\Dy�00h�q��Ñ+öY��B�2����3k�G���N�����&T;*��It(!�L��a!U�j*���"�����z2\W�I��. Livelihood Insecurity & Economic Impact April 17, 2020 With a large proportion of people self-employed, the COVID-19 social distancing and self-isolation measures introduced in many African countries are having an immediate negative economic impact on livelihoods and food security. At this stage, measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa are causing an economic crisis that is far more significant than the public health emergency it is trying to prevent. direct) access as well as economic access to food. The fundamental principles of livelihoods programming are that it is people-centred, multilevel, dynamic, and ultimately aims to achieve sustainable livelihoods4. Food insecurity is a global issue affecting 820 million people around the world. The country is in the process of an enormous transformation. Whilst only approximately 20,000 people out of a population of about 1.2 billion people have tested positive for the virus in Africa thus far (the real numbers will be much higher), millions of people’s daily livelihood patterns and their everyday means of sustaining themselves and their families have been disrupted by the social distancing measures governments across Africa have adopted to contain the spread of the virus. 1 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 76 0 R /Resources 2 0 R /Contents 3 0 R /Rotate 0 /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 2.448 93.168 474.192 792 ] /Thumb 45 2 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F7 105 0 R /F8 112 0 R /F10 117 0 R /F11 37 0 R /F12 38 0 R /F13 39 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 130 0 R >> >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Length 6806 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream rJ�l��2�t�?4y-&-��ߕ�"/$��{�*N���"�8[��BA~fW��v)�N6�r��n��9ߦ!��cD�X&��`��v�Q�X���G��ׄ���0!����U.A��C� H���k��Őm����{��v�k^�!_qzAle��4��)"�+��ܟ��^�tq]�?�� In most cases, these programs target victims of man-made emergencies (i.e. Introduction: rural livelihoods in transition? For decades, the number of people living with hunger had been declining, but the changing climate, entrenched conflict and economic slowdowns are now making hunger worse. These measures have saved thousands of lives. Government actions that are perceived as heavy-handed undermine public trust and resistance. With a large proportion of people self-employed in the informal economy and in small and medium-size enterprises, the social distancing and self-isolation measures introduced in many African countries are thus having an immediate negative economic impact on livelihoods. South Sudan. on resilience, humanitarian action and livelihoods in situations of protracted and recurrent crisis. Amongst others, they have called for a debt interest payments waiver to increase liquidity, so that African countries can be in a better position to increase health spending and stimulate their economies. The AU Burea called on creditor countries and multilateral institutions to immediately suspend interest payments for Africa on its external public and private debt. This commonly refers to people having "physical and economic access" to food that meets both their nutritional needs and food preferences. Paul Nantulya argues that it is important that governments and others now engage local communities and together with them adapt their containment strategies to their specific needs and contexts. It is likely that climate change will exacerbate livelihood vulnerabilities and food insecurity trends in the most at-risk areas. tant to distinguish poverty from food insecurity during a disaster. Household livelihood security is defined as adequate and sustainable access to income and resources to meet basic needs (including adequate access to food, potable water, health facilities, educational opportunities, housing, t… Maxwell and Smith (1992), for example, have documented more The formal economy is also severely affected by border closures, travel restrictions, loss of productivity, the collapse of the tourism industry, an overall reduction in economic activity and the disruption of global supply chains. These measures have saved thousands of lives. The livelihoods principles and framework form the basis of all livelihoods programming. Climate impacts on livelihoods: Food insecurity, particularly in the most vulnerable areas in almost all the country, is highly sensitive to climate trends. Livelihoods approaches may also provide a practical tool to tie together the concepts of food insecurity, hunger and poverty - providing the link between a multidimensional and people-centred view of poverty with an analytical framework based on people’s strategies, assets and capacities. In 2019, the African Development Bank (AfDB) gave a forecast of 3.4% growth in African economies. Additionally, the households that are most likely to be food insecure tended to engage in livelihood activities such as petty trade, unskilled labour, natural resources exploitation, handicrafts, and farming. Our agriculture and food security programs and advocacy promote locally sustainable solutions that meet the needs of small-scale producers, particularly women. ?�J���u=a8�O���G��:3�os�Pb"�nɝ�y��y_�~��p����S`�Sԗ�n��LP�M��j C�TLТ}�U���AMӞ������3�w��l����f}���S�?_�$�ASI[�E8|��m^����J�/1����'��I�D�Β�W�XC1� Are we facing a global food crisis? ��W3�^u��ŀ��Q� ob MQ��d������K�,�e�����[֫t���_۞���?��'����D�L�v;���u�y��ʹ��R�/��,���&���� Wb?VW��L��,�.�7ԋ��J��V��-�8���F�[�&�x�xuB���{�7��+�g �pj�3{ɸQ����l��*?`l��7P�;"�=R9Z�{:�����&r���ks��n���II�Q�N\cҰ�.�#��W$,��&� �d�=z��#��x#���?��#���Ml��f'�e��k�"$N���-C�p��>�g���Ԯ 1�3}������!���h��%��(��Nh ��M�l�x�0W�^ ]������g|�?0��a������E���(��y~e��|������ǯ ���㕗p�h��@�LyS��8! Rural livelihoods, food security and rural transformation under climate change 5 1. Through focused and targeted advocacy, we also tackle the underlying policies and power imbalances that keep people in poverty. At the beginning of 2020, 135 million people around the world were already facing extreme hunger. Receive latest updates, news and analysis from ACCORD, self-employed in the informal economy and in small and medium-size enterprises, African Union published a report in April 2020, Kenya’s informal settlements the Kenya Red Cross Society, adapt their containment strategies to their specific needs and contexts, heavy-handed undermine public trust and resistance. The focus is on the needs and priorities as identified by the affected po… Ellis (2000) argues that rural households in developing countries diversify their livelihoods due to insufficient income from a single livelihood activity, for example, if farming on their own land does not provide sufficient means for the survival of many rural households. hurricanes, earthquakes) in addition to vulnerable populations. �.Kȏ �]��3L�]�\�|Xi�6���Y�n�Xj l As such, this study on household livelihood diversification strategies and household food insecurity is expected to fill some of the existing knowledge gap by using empirical In any crisis situation communities and households, poor or less poor, will use coping strategiesin order to reduce the risks to their lives and livelihoods. This definition reflects physical insecurity which is the most visible form of insecurity, and it feeds into many other forms of insecurity such as economic security and social security. A policy agenda that emphasizes security must, therefore, benchmark itself on how quickly it is able to change these. Our livelihoods and food security work focuses on the following thematic areas: Household and livelihood vulnerability analysis; Emergency food assistance; Asset creation (creating local assets that reduce food insecurity and build livelihood opportunities) Many other initiatives are underway to assist those most directly affected. And at the end of March and again in early April South African President Cyril Ramaphosa, as chair of the AU, convened a meeting of the AU Bureau – which includes the chair of the AU Commission and the outgoing (Egypt) and incoming (DRC) chairs of the AU – to develop a common African response to the virus. In some areas which are not normally of concern, such as the Mashonaland Provinces, livelihood coping mechanisms have increased both in frequency and severity in order to cope with food consumption gaps. Asecond key feature is that it is participatory. 1Other livelihoods definitions There are many other definitions. 9����é v��m8���H�^����R\wq� �5�S���\hq^����A1fb African Finance Ministers met virtually in mid-March to coordinate their response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The NGO CARE USA, realizing the importance of viewing food security in a broader perspective, adopted household livelihood security as its organizing conceptual framework in 1996, understanding the contribution that this framework could make towards improved programming. According to the World Food Program, that figure could rise to a staggering 265 million people by the end of this year. One line of criticism is that urban agriculture advocate… A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets, and activities required for a means of living. WHAT IS HUMAN SECURITY For many people, today’s world is an insecure place, full of threats on many fronts. In remarks delivered to the UN Security Council on April 21, UN World Food Programme Executive Director David Beasley said, “In a worst-case scenario, we could be looking at famine in about three dozen countries.” Yet it is not just the emerging economic cat… Livelihood Insecurity and Social Protection: A Re‐emerging Issue in Rural Development Livelihood Insecurity and Social Protection: A Re‐emerging Issue in Rural Development Devereux, Stephen 2001-12-01 00:00:00 Risk and vulnerability have been rediscovered as key features of rural livelihoods and poverty, and are currently a focus of policy attention. In 2017, 3.4 billion people lived in rural areas, most in low (15%) and middle income (79%) countriesi, many deriving their income from small-scale agriculture, including fishing and livestock raising. Livelihood interventions must be undertaken in combination with other sectors. %PDF-1.3 %���� insecurity problems are dynamic, changing in scope and nature over various phases of economic development, research on the subject has to be on a sustained basis. Food Security & Livelihoods Facts. UNDP; Posted 29 Jun 2017 Originally published This analytical framework might inform war) and natural disasters (i.e. During the 1980s, the food security literature identified cyclical and acute food insecurity (seasonality and famine respectively) as central features of rural poverty in tropical regions (Chambers et al., 1981; Sen, 1981), while pioneering work on vulnerability highlighted the greater concepts. However, the negative impact of COVID-19 on the economy, coupled with failing commodity prices, and declining government resources to finance public investment, makes it near impossible to achieve this growth rate in 2020. Increased food prices and insecurity are making food inaccessible to many families. Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA) Food security includes both physical (i.e. Food security is defined, according to the World Food Summit of 1996, as existing "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life". A household is considered food secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. As a result, economic forecasts in most African countries are already being downgraded by at least 2-3 percentage points for 2020. S_��='��br_�j�Z�^�\�Nh:��Dtr\8L��E��}]I/�#Sv/�X3c"��D����F��D������8�3��p�teH�dn��^�4��~��we9 �PմU!}�������]oT�-��y�lISg�7B����u��vv��r7�9q�'e�b���o�J+���w����s۝Y��G��=. Over the years, food insecurity has been defined in a variety of ways. Livelihood & Food Security Conceptual Framework ... Food insecurity is both a primary result and one of the principal manifestations of poverty. Lessons learned from the Ebola response in West Africa in 2014 and more recently in the DRC, show that communities need to be part of the solution. Food security is a measure of the availability of food and individuals' ability to access it.According the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as the means that all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life. At first sight, it seems surprising that so much of the discussion of resilience is taking place in humanitarian circles: hopes of resilience seem oddly placed in crisis- and disaster-prone areas. Akey feature of livelihoods analysis is that it includes an analysis of household assets, strategies, priorities and goals at micro-level, and the policies, institutions and processes that affect livelihoods at national and international level (macro-level). Livelihood insecurity is a re-emerging issue in rural development. The degree to which there is adequate availability and fair access to basic necessities, including basic food items, medical services and supplies, information, communication and other basic necessities during the implementation of COVID-19 related measures, will influence the extent to which many countries on the continent are able to mitigate against possible social unrest and violence. Real or perceived shortages or preferential treatment of certain identity groups could result in social unrest, looting and attacks on individuals and groups. food insecurity prevails such as the Southern parts of the country. Micronutrient deficiency affects 2 billion people making them susceptible to long-term, irreversible health effects, as well … Nepal has become a net importer of grain in recent years. {T�@M��� A food insecurity situation analysis that combines international standards - including food consumption levels, livelihoods changes, nutritional status, and mortality - and triangulates them with several contributing factors (food availability, access, utilization and stability, and vulnerability and hazards) analyzed within local contexts; and All these patterns are indicative of relatively high livelihood insecurity. Government across Africa should be commended for the assertive early actions they took to contain the pandemic. While much of the literature is extremely enthusiastic about the practice and promise of urban agriculture, more critical perspectives are also emerging [5, 6, 7, 8]. A step-by-step guide for National Societies in Africa Coping strategies of food and livelihood security for the people living in your municipality before the pandemic arrives, and the factors that could place some people at high risk of food and livelihood insecurity during a pandemic. Food security is a matter of sustainable development of communities; therefore, food security aid has a more long-term focus than more urgent food and nutrition aid in response to emergencies. However, African governments, in close consultation with community representatives and the private sector now need to urgently adapt these measures, and find a better balance between containing the spread of the virus and the socio-economic impact of the measures taken to control it. It is deemed sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities, assets, and activities both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base. The livelihoods framework provides a tool for analysing people's livelihoods and the impact of specific threats or shocks on livelihood vulnerability. Livelihood diversification of rural households has long been an important adaptation option in many countries. Urban agriculture (UA) is widely viewed as a panacea for the growing challenge of urban food insecurity in African cities [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. This information will help you make the best decisions about how to respond to potential food and livelihood security threats. Stages of food insecurity range from food secure situations to full-scale famine. Short-term food security programs are usually one of two types: emergency programs, which provide food aid and medical and agricultural supplies to victims and refugees; and safety net programs,which distribute basic food and food supplements to vulnerable pop… H et al, 2002). For example, in Kenya’s informal settlements the Kenya Red Cross Society and others are providing targeted assistance through direct cash transfers, food parcels and other essential commodities. Climate Change, Food Insecurity and Resilient Livelihoods in South Sudan Format News and Press Release Source. More than half of the children in Burundi are not receiving the food and nutrients their bodies and brains need to develop properly. j�2��DHH#a8�Q ��w���n�"c�xOԙO The African Union published a report in April 2020 warning that key sectors of the African economy such as tourism, air transport, and the oil sector are already experiencing slowdown as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The idea that poor urban populations should and could grow their own food achieved significant credibility in the 1990s and has begun to resurface in recent policy debates. 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