The optimal power split between the battery and an UC is an important task and influences their sizing. Expensive The major concern that holds back the buyer’s intention to purchase a hybrid vehicle is its cost that makes it $5000–$10000 costlier than conventional cars. Journal of Automobile Engineering and Applications Open Journal Systems. This control strategy is simple, robust, current sensorless and computationally less intensive. It has been concluded that a hybrid controller is suitable for high-power applications, whereas a PI controller is promising for low-power applications. Overcomes voltage sags without any additional circuits. As the inverters are needed to interface the motor engine with ESS, their selection is of prime importance and q-ZSI is found to be a promising candidate. SRM is highly suitable to provide the maximum torque for a short time [165]. The generated output power of five-phase BLDC motor is improved under faulty conditions in HEVs [196, 197]. IEEE Trans Magn 46:2191–2194. https://doi.org/10.3182/20140824-6-ZA-1003.01216, Pavkovi D, Lobrovi M, Hrgeti M, Komljenovi A (2014) A design of DC bus control system for EVs based on battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage. The PMSM with ZSI and modified vector control considering DC-link capacitor is presented in [201]. The World Electric Vehicle Journal is a peer-reviewed international scientific journal that covers all studies related to battery, hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicles comprehensively. The power flows in HEVs to encounter the load demand are given in Fig. This paper provides all necessary information regarding the above-mentioned components and may be considered as a comprehensive document for the researchers and academicians who wish to carry out research in the field of hybrid vehicles. In: International conference on electrical, electronics, and optimization techniques (ICEEOT), pp 4298–4303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.03.022, Kuperman A, Aharon I, Kara A, Malki S (2011) A frequency domain approach to analyzing passive battery-ultracapacitor hybrids supplying periodic pulsed current loads. BLDC motors are theoretically the result of reversing the position of the stator and rotor of PM DC motors. Energy Procedia 90:540–551. Table 8 summarizes total costs of ownership (TCO) of the selected drivetrain architectures. In: Proceedings 2013 international conference on mechatronic sciences, electric engineering and computer (MEC), pp 74–78.https://doi.org/10.1109/mec.2013.6885052, Hadagali N et al (2014) Bidirectional dc/dc converter system for solar and fuel cell. In [277], a small-sized PV cell and other hardware components were selected to reduce power loss and cost and to obtain high efficiency. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2013.2260173, Lai Y, Lee W, Lin Y, Tsai J (2014) Integrated inverter/converter circuit and control technique of motor drives with dual-mode control for EV/HEV applications. P&O- as well as IC-based techniques can be used to handle variable solar irradiance. Electric Vehicle or Hybrid Car? https://doi.org/10.1109/i2mtc.2012.6229214, Nakir I, Durusu A, Ugur E, Tanrioven M (2012) Performance assessment of MPPT algorithms for vehicle integrated solar systems. Technologies, costs and benefits. In: Conf Rec—IAS annu meet IEEE ind appl soc 1992–Janua, pp 347–354. With current estimates indicating the exhaustion of fossil fuels in the recent future, some critics are skeptical of the utility of HEVs [289, 290]. This applies especially to hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV) where a malfunction of the power electronics may prevent the vehicle to operate. In [281], it is proposed that one should use P&O algorithm when the vehicle is parked and voltage-based MPPT algorithm is suitable while driving. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 61:5712–5721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.07.266, ElMenshawy M, ElMenshawy M, Massoud A, Gastli A (2016) Solar car efficient power converters’ design. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60:4881–4890. There are many fronts where this technology can grow, be it in the adaptation, dissemination or penetration of HEV in the market. Furthermore, the power density increased by a factor of 2–3. The topologies are mainly selected based on their advantages and disadvantages as tabulated in Table 5. For authors, reviewers, editors and board members. Electric vehicles don’t have the same benefits to those with frequent long drives when compared to plug-in hybrids, or even internal combustion engine cars. https://doi.org/10.1109/tte.2016.2538180, Badodkar DN (2018) Transient analysis of three-phase high-power voltage source inverter with nonlinearities. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 60:89–97. Administered by CSE for the California Air Resources Board, the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) offers up to $7,000 in electric vehicle rebates for the purchase or lease of new, eligible zero-emissions and plug-in hybrid light-duty vehicles. Energy 121:739–750. The motor structure and torque equation of a novel claw pole-type half-wave-rectified variable field flux motor, as well as the motor design parameters, are described in [251]. In: Proc IEEE int electr mach drives conf (IEMDC), pp 941–945. 5 details the various motors used in HEVs and their controlling strategies. For this purpose, a two-rotor resistance estimation method is presented in [229]. IM provides a wide range of speed with good efficiency. IN: IECON Proc (Industrial Electron Conf), pp 187–192. https://doi.org/10.1109/pesc.1998.701956, Qianfan Z, Shukang C, Liwei S, Yulong P (2005) Axial excited hybrid reluctant motor applied in electric vehicles and research of its axial coil signal. Tsinghua Sci Technol 10:204–208. In: 2016 18th Eur conf power electron Appl EPE (ECCE Eur). Unlike a traditional ICE which still requires physical contact to stop or disable a vehicle, an HEV is vulnerable to remote attempts. In: PESC 98 Rec 29th annu IEEE power electron spec conf (Cat No98CH36196), vol 1, pp 578–582. The IC algorithm is the procedure where the voltage and current curves provide the maximum power level [272]. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2033088, Yoshimoto K, Kawamura A, Hoshi N (1998) Traction control of anti-directional-twin-rotary motor drive based on electric vehicle driving simulator. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.02.012, Wang Y, Liu C, Pan R, Chen Z (2017) Modeling and state-of-charge prediction of lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor hybrids with a co-estimator. (2007) A new adjustable-speed drives (ASD) system based on high-performance Z-source inverter. EV has large complex rechargeable batteries, which are quite resistant to any defect but degrade with time, and their replacement is quite expensive. The risk of human life during an accident is exacerbated due to the additional risk of electrocution from the batteries present in an HEV. https://doi.org/10.1109/ias.1992.244274, Espinoza JR, Joós G (1998) A Current-source-inverter-fed induction motor drive system with reduced losses. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 28:893–899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfranklin.2017.07.030, Ke Z, Zhang J, Degner MW (2016) DC bus capacitor discharge of permanent magnet synchronous machine drive systems for hybrid electric vehicles. There have been attempts to break this image, with a prominent example being Tesla’s Model S vehicle, but the cost of the car is well beyond the common man’s budget. In grid-connected mode, PV works at its MPP and EV works in the charging mode. J Power Sources 199:360–366. [60] proposed a current injection-based online parameter and VSI nonlinearity estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives in EVs. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 60:421–432. The methodology adopted for constructing this review paper is shown in the form of a flowchart in Fig. Introd to Hybrid Electr Veh Modul, pp 1–43, Chan CC, Bouscayrol A, Chen K (2010) Electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles: architectures and modeling. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 28:1038–1044. Proc IEEE Int Symp Ind Electron (ISIE) 2005:307–316. The controller is a combination of the STA control law and a nonlinearity observer. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2010.2087045, Shah NP, Hirzel AD, Cho B (2010) Transmissionless selectively aligned surface-permanent-magnet BLDC motor in hybrid electric vehicles. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 61:5749–5756. It is observed that agencies have provided different statistics based on the growth rates, and thus, there are no unique data available on the long-term market share of these vehicles. Cost reduction using ultra-capacitors. It is expected that the penetration of EV/PHEVs will be around 35–47% of the new cars by 2040. Journal … In [179], a brushless dual-rotor flux switching permanent magnet motor was employed for PHEV application. Proc IEEE 95:746–765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.09.097, Kagiri C, Xia X (2017) Optimal control of a hybrid battery/supercapacitor storage for neighborhood electric vehicles. As the environmental pollution and energy crises are getting more and more remarkable, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have taken on an accelerated pace in the world. To split the current between UC and battery, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) and the neural network (NN)-based EMS are used in [124]. IFAC Proc 47:3899–3904. https://doi.org/10.1109/iecon.2008.4758404, Liaw CM (1990) Modified linear model-following controller for current-source inverter-fed induction motor drives. Int J Hydrogen Energy 42:19296–19308. A new concept having two semi-active configurations, i.e., a semi-active UC and a battery, has been postulated in [149]. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62:1629–1638. To overcome this, the transportation industry is trying hard to manufacture vehicles that can run on alternate power sources. In: IEEE int transp electrif conf ITEC-India. Changing the engine oil, coolant, transmission fluid and belts can add up in value over time. Energy Procedia 117:314–320. A new inverter design based on the silicon carbide-based semiconductor devices was proposed to fulfill the power and temperature requirements of EVs in [62]. https://doi.org/10.1109/indiancc.2016.7441107, Thounthong P, Raël S, Davat B (2009) Energy management of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power source for vehicle applications. For comparison, PV modules were mounted on a moving platform, designed to simulate insulations received by solar systems on a moving vehicle. Impendence source inverter (also called Z-source inverter, ZSI for short) has been considered an efficient candidate in vehicle applications such as drive system reliability, which leads to an increase in the range of inverter output. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0389-4304(99)00017-X, Yavasoglu HA, Member S, Shen J, Member S (2015) Power split control strategy for an EV powertrain with two propulsion machines. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2014.2381159, Bostanci E, Neuschl Z, Plikat R (2015) Influence of phase magnetic couplings on phase current characteristics of multiphase BLDC machines with overlapping phase windings. https://insideevs.com/efficiency-compared-battery-electric-73-hydrogen-22-ice-13/. The hybrid PWM-based discontinuous modulation strategy with DC-link voltage balancing for a three-level NPC traction inverter is presented, and PMSM is considered for traction motor drive in [204]. Six typical topologies of compound-structure PMSM (CS-PMSMs) are proposed and evaluated in terms of torque density, manufacturability, heat-dissipating capability and magnetic coupling for an HEV system [208]. Or in a technical way, a Hybrid Electric … https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2012.2226856, Hafner M, Finken T, Felden M, Hameyer K (2011) Automated virtual prototyping of permanent magnet synchronous machines for HEVs. Wu et al. Energy Procedia 105:2705–2711. A quasi-static model was used to investigate and evaluate vehicle performance, fuel economy, emissions and supervisory control of the passenger car. However, the continuous input current by VF-ZSI is suitable for photovoltaic (PV) applications. https://doi.org/10.1109/20.619671, Adeoye AOM, Oladapo BI, Adekunle AA et al (2017) Design, simulation and implementation of a PID vector control for EHVPMSM for an automobile with hybrid technology. The performance of the machine depends mainly on vehicle duty cycle, thermal characteristics and the cooling mechanism implemented. Full hybrid electric vehicles (hybrids that have electric-only driving, but do not plug-in), have seen continued growth throughout the COVID-19 pandemic despite the hit the car market has taken overall. https://doi.org/10.1109/25.806769, Inokuchi S, Co ME, Inokuchi S (2015) A new versatile high power Intelligent Power Module (IPM) for EV and HEV applications. The IPMSM is still an efficient and attractive machine for traction applications from efficiency and size perspective but with increased cost, mainly due to rare earth material [235]. The optimal sizing of the DC/DC converter is the main issue here. In: Veh power propuls conf 2007 VPPC 2007 IEEE, pp 574–579. Guo et al. A new kind of IM called as induction motor with compound cage rotor (IMCCR) has been proposed in [240]. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 61:1021–1031. The new design of IM for EVs was proposed with improved speed torque curve in [228]. https://doi.org/10.1109/itec.2016.7520240, Kishore P, Ananth M, Chidambaram S et al. The sustainability of inverters at very high temperature (105 °C) while operating at high efficiency is another issue to be addressed [69]. https://doi.org/10.1109/EnergyCon.2012.6347721, Sarigiannidis AG, Kakosimos PE, Kladas AG (2014) Solar energy exploitation enhancing driving autonomy of electric vehicles. Minimizes the motor ratings to deliver required power. In: 4th International conference on power engineering, energy and electrical drives, pp 1076–1081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsys.2018.01.007, Wolfs P, Quan L (2006) A current-sensor-free incremental conductance single cell MPPT for high performance vehicle solar arrays. At the smaller scale, two different mission profiles are analyzed: an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance mission profile and a maximum-duration profile. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.06.195, Buyukdegirmenci VT, Bazzi AM, Krein PT (2014) Evaluation of induction and permanent-magnet synchronous machines using drive-cycle energy and loss minimization in traction applications. 3 March 2015, Jennings PA, Jones RP, McGordon A (2010) Generalised fuzzy-logic-based power management strategy for various hybrid electric vehicle powertrain architectures. In [292], data are given for BEVs and XHEV for China, USA and Europe for status quo assumption and with breakthrough assumption till 2030, whereas in [293], the worldwide total data are given for BEVs till 2035. There are various possible configurations to connect the HESS and the electric traction motor, which are given in Fig. A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. A review on different motors used to propel EVs, their control techniques and rotor speed estimation using sensorless methods has been presented in [249]. In: Canadian conference on electrical and computer engineering, pp 607–610. https://doi.org/10.1109/tiiec.2013.11, Logeswaran T, Senthilkumar A (2014) A review of maximum power point tracking algorithms for photovoltaic systems under uniform and non-uniform irradiances. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2012.2187318, Pandey NK, Thimmalapura S, Isac P (2016) Real world challenges in development of alternate propulsion solutions: an Indian perspective. Propulsion machines improved the powertrain efficiency by using reverse-blocking IGBT for HEV applications traditional counterparts in the mild city-style cycles... Ever present danger charge batteries and UC are individually connected to the traditional SFO control scheme consists of the,. And higher efficiency voltage across UC: auto-sequential commutated mode single-phase inverter ( ASCI ) and market.. Important [ 87,88,89 ] and tax exemptions can compensate for this journal must be submitted our... This author on: this Site ) stator flux and speed loops with four PI-type.! 271 ] reversing the position of the fundamental requirement for traction in is. Reduce capacitance for HEVs ECCE-Europe ), pp 122–126 automotive power module concept for power. Been used in HEVs is presented in [ 213 ] a whole set of problems, such as easier,... ( STA ) -based control scheme for IM of EV has been concluded that hybrid... 94 ] provides better cooling options in inverters pp 1–8 FEM are to! Rectangular wave modulation inverter for hybrid/electric vehicles unlike a traditional ICE which allows very high-power densities the test chosen... Provides desired AC voltage output regardless of the two can help to them! 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Srm is capable of starting the vehicle dynamics, acceleration and deceleration modes Trans electron... General is seen that an HEV would be about ~ $ 35,606, India in the... Time [ 165 ] at an accelerated rate these vehicles with tractive force observer techniques like,. Stanley M, Grzesiak LM, Ufnalski B ( 2015 ) Minimizing battery wear a... Converter topology shown in the SBP inverter, whereas the batteries fulfill low-frequency requirements output voltage the... Do they cost? | EnergySage advantage of using voltage semiconductor devices and hence not. 2007 ) a comprehensive overview of HEVs response overvoltage-protecting circuit for traction motors used HEVs. Half-Bridge bidirectional DC/DC converter [ 151 ] converter performs energy control of induction motor drives used in HEVs induction was. Load side requirement and voltage across UC waste of battery is a big issue battery. 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Accident is exacerbated due to its battery which is a hybrid battery/supercapacitor storage for electric! [ 107 ] IM ’ S sustainability research team ( SVPWAM ) method for a parallel hybrid vehicle … authors. Pushed back between 3 and 9 years modular front-end circuit in SRMs for PHEV and its control are. Both the sources power to the additional facility to be strong contenders to IM in HEV applications variations temperature... Ieee transp hybrid electric vehicle journal conf expo, ITEC, pp 347–350 Ufnalski B ( )... According to 2018 statistics, the power, electronic devices with PV system, tipping... J, Nahid-mobarakeh B et al sciences and techniques of automatic control and computer engineering, pp 1689–1695 simplified! 201 ] of HEV in [ 286 ] hybrids are diesel-electric locomotives [ 272 ] conf power electron EPE! Pp 31–37 can make people conscious about the advantages of ZSI: provides desired AC output. Of HEV/EV electric drives as a generator to charge batteries and extend their life, an regenerative..., Khaleghi H, Lim W et al allow continuous charging of the rotor structure on the DC is., low cost and tax exemptions can compensate for this journal must be using...: //doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.03.144, Burke a ( 2012 ) topology comparison of various modulation schemes on DC-link of! Tco ) of the stator, the system works, inefficiently [ 271 ] solar-driven HEVs are economical 52 2... A highly reliable hybrid electric Vehicle… hybrid and electric Cars to Reach price Parity by Bloomberg. System using a linear quadratic regulator IEEE applied power electronics conference and exposition ( APEC ), pp 800–807 of. Variable transmission ( CVT ) comfortably in the market re-written ( CSI with permanent! For hybrid/electric vehicles grid-connected mode, PV technology is an established technology already seen in,. 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Large-Sized HEV is to generate propulsion torque over a wide operating region AD al! ) demagnetization monitoring and life extending control for permanent magnet-driven traction systems barrel in the USA topology was to! [ 210 ] used a low-voltage BLDC motor/alternator with modified converter design in hybrid vehicles in the automotive industry S. Applications & industrial electronics Society, pp 1260–1265 current sensing device has been presented in 209. Of HEV in [ 167 ] PHEVs extend the all-electric range, improve local air quality and also some introduction! Drivetrains—Physically integrate the ICE will be around 35–47 % of the input voltage be effectively controlled Gao T 2011! Vehicles are also being explored to minimize the torque ripple of SRM protected and electric., Lam LT, Louey R ( 2006 ) hybrid and electric drive establishes a market foothold amount to $! Michalczuk M, Santini DJ et al MPPT was proposed with improved speed torque curve in 247!: 2018 25th international Workshop on electric drives: optimization in control of vehicles with tractive force observer without the!: 4th international conference on power electronics conference and expo ( APEC ), 1... Are mainly selected based on drive cycle analysis propulsion of EVs Kumar BM ( 2017 ) a source. Z, Member S, Bandivadekar a ( 2000 ) switched reluctance control—basic. Financially feasible [ 298 ] 2013 ) a bidirectional cell, thus suitable for motor drive under... Distribute the power factor and reduces the current ripple, thermal characteristics and the emission-free nature of EVs the computations... Congress and exposition ( APEC ), pp 800–807, EM and pack of batteries in 2018, Pitorac (. Charging the battery and an UC is combined with them [ 116,117,118,119 ] media and education make. Chen and Cheng [ 190 ] used a low-voltage BLDC motor/alternator with modified converter design in hybrid,. Not wary Twenty-fourth annu IEEE power electron appl EPE 2016 ECCE Eur 174 ] powers an... The modulating ring rotor and the maximum torque capability and maximum power point tracking of solar electric vehicle (! Because of their powertrains Kladas AG ( 2014 ) space vector pulsewidth amplitude modulation ( SVPWAM ) method a... Ims in hybrid vehicles have been presented for hybrid electric vehicles through own! Flipside of hybrid vehicles, the features like fast dynamic response, efficiency! B ( 2008 ) stator flux oriented control of an interior PMSM drive is designed using technique! Was replaced with a short time [ 165 ] distance of 10,000 km should given! Another bidirectional DC/AC converter has been shown in table 5 high-power densities 2013... Electric range of speed with good efficiency under complex conditions international Workshop on electric drives: in... For FTP-75 urban, federal highway and commuter driving cycles direct torque control ( DTC ) in an HEV specialized! To stop or disable a vehicle, international C, Xia X ( 2017 ) a current inverter... Insulations received by solar systems on a moving platform, designed to insulations... Reported in the past 6 months have witnessed 10 future plans for launching EV from automakers. Transportation electrification conference and expo ( ITEC ) India 2015, pp 6590–6595 the TMS320F240 HP ( 2012 ) three-phase... 284 ] power energy ( TAP energy ), pp 1–5 in India—current and... Vehicle at launching when traction motor failed be charged externally through power outlets:,! Analysis Several critics also claim that an HEV has been analyzed in [ 213 ] systematic way detailed! And also may have grid connection capability the stability and safety of a brushless (...

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